Mahoney, Sarah (2010) The effects of maternal obesity on neonatal anthropometry and placental regulation of cytokine production. Masters thesis, University of Liverpool.
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Introduction: The prevalence of obesity is rising and maternal obesity has been implicated as a perpetuating factor. Maternal obesity has been linked to the development of macrosomic neonates who are at increased risk of becoming obese themselves. Current understanding of the mechanisms instigating this are unknown, however the pro-inflammatory status associated with obesity has been suggested. Method: Anthropometric estimation of fat mass and percentage body fat was conducted on neonates of lean and obese women and their placentae analysed for morphological changes by light microscopy. Placental explants from both cohorts of women were incubated in order to determine the regulatory role of glucose, leptin, tumour-necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and insulin on the production of interleukin-1 (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and TNF-α. Results: Neonates of obese mothers were found to have increased birth weight, fat mass, fat free mass, and percentage body fat in comparison to neonates of lean mothers. The rise in birth weight, fat mass, fat free mass, and percentage body fat were not shown to significantly correlate to maternal booking BMI on univariate analysis. Placentae of obese women were shown to produce more IL-6 under basal conditions and in response to TNF-α stimulation. Glucose was shown to reduce placental production of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in both cohorts, and leptin and insulin stimulation had no effect on cytokine production. There was no evidence of placental inflammation on examination by light microscopy. Conclusion: Maternal obesity is associated with neonates of increased birth weight and adiposity, and increased production of inflammatory mediators by the placenta which is not evidenced in overall placental appearance. It is hoped that by elucidating the mechanisms by which obesity may be perpetuated, via the in-utero environment for example, foundations for future research can be established which are aimed at tackling the epidemic of obesity.
|Item Type:||Thesis (Masters)|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||Obesity; cytokines; neonatal antropometry|
|Subjects:||R Medicine > RG Gynecology and obstetrics|
|Departments, Research Centres and Related Units:||Academic Faculties, Institutes and Research Centres > Faculty of Medicine > School of Reproductive & Developmental Medicine|
|Deposited On:||29 Nov 2011 09:29|
|Last Modified:||29 Nov 2011 09:37|
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