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Differential vascular dysfunction in response to diets of differing macronutrient composition: a phenomenonological study

Fatani, Sameer; Pickavance, Lucy C.; Sadler, Claire J.; Harrold, Joanne A.; Cassidy, Roslyn; Wilding, John P.H. and Naderali, Ebrahim K. (2007) Differential vascular dysfunction in response to diets of differing macronutrient composition: a phenomenonological study. Nutrition & Metabolism, 4 . Article Number: 15. ISSN 1743-7075

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Abstract

Background: Vascular dysfunction can develop from consumption of an energy-rich diet, even prior to the onset of obesity. However, the roles played by different dietary components remain uncertain. While attempting to develop models of obesity in a separate study, we observed that two high-energy diets of differing macronutrient compositions affected vascular function differently in overweight rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats (n = 6/group) were fed diets providing varying percentages of energy from fat and carbohydrate (CHO). For 10 weeks, they were fed either chow, as control diet (10% of energy from fat; 63% from CHO), chow supplemented with chocolate biscuit (30% fat; 56% CHO) or a high-fat diet (45% fat; 35% CHO). Blood concentrations of biochemical markers of obesity were measured, and epididymal fat pads weighed as a measure of adiposity. Mesenteric arteries were dissected and their contractile and relaxant properties analysed myographically. Data were tested by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Weight gain and plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin and leptin were similar in all groups. However, biscuit-fed animals showed increased food intake (+27%; p < 0.01) and elevated concentrations of TGs and NEFAs (+41% and +17%; both p < 0.05). High-fat-fed animals showed an increase only in NEFAs (+38%; p < 0.01). Arterial vasoconstriction in response to NA and KCl increased only in biscuitfed rats (both p < 0.01), while vasorelaxation in response to CCh and SNP, but not histamine, was attenuated in both groups (both p < 0.01). Furthermore, whereas the effect of the high-fat diet was most pronounced in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, the biscuit diet had the greater effect on endothelium-independent vasorelaxation. Conclusion: Vascular dysfunction resulting from consumption of a high-fat or combined relatively highfat/ high-CHO diet occurs through different physiological processes, which may be attributable to their differing macronutrient compositions. Combining potentially atherogenic macronutrients induces more extensive vascular impairment than that of high-fat alone, and may be attributable to the more marked dyslipidaemia observed with such a diet. Thus, these findings help clarify the role of dietary components in vascular impairment, which has implications for clinical approaches to preventing cardiovascular disease.

Item Type:Article
Additional Information:6 pages (page numbers not for citation purposes). Published: 14 June 2007.
Uncontrolled Keywords:ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION; BODY-FAT; CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE; MONOUNSATURATED FAT; CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE; INSULIN-RESISTANCE; INCREASED RISK; WEIGHT-LOSS; OBESITY; RAT
Subjects:Q Science > Q Science (General)
R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
Departments, Research Centres and Related Units:Academic Faculties, Institutes and Research Centres > Faculty of Medicine > School of Clinical Sciences
Academic Faculties, Institutes and Research Centres > Faculty of Science > Department of Psychology
Academic Faculties, Institutes and Research Centres > Faculty of Veterinary Science > Department of Veterinary Preclinical Science
DOI:10.1186/1743-7075-4-15
Publisher's Statement:© 2007 Fatani et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Related URLs:
Refereed:Yes
Status:Published
ID Code:697
Deposited On:06 Jun 2008 13:16
Last Modified:28 Feb 2012 11:26

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