Skip navigation
Scholarly Communication

Human sex chromosomes in oral and craniofacial growth

Alvesalo, Lassi (2009) Human sex chromosomes in oral and craniofacial growth. Archives of Oral Biology, 54 (1). S18-S24. ISSN 0003-9969

PDF - Accepted Version

Official URL:


Studies on tooth crown size and structure in families and in individuals with various sex chromosome anomalies have demonstrated differential direct effects of the human X and Y chromosome genes on growth. The Y chromosome promotes both tooth crown enamel and dentin growth, whereas the effect of the X chromosome on crown growth seems to be restricted to enamel formation. Enamel growth is decisively influenced by cell secretory function and dentin growth by cell proliferation. It is suggested that these differential effects of the X and Y chromosomes on growth explain the expression of sexual dimorphism in various somatic features. These include tooth crown and root size, crown shape and the number of the teeth, and under the assumption of genetic pleiotropy, torus mandibularis, statural growth, and sex ratio. It is of interest that molecular studies have shown that the gene loci for human amelogenin, the major protein component of the organic matrix in enamel are on both the X and Y chromosomes. Future questions include the role of the Y chromosome in the mineralization process, the concentric control of enamel and dentin growth, and gene expression.

Item Type:Article
Additional Information:Issue Date: December 2009
Uncontrolled Keywords:Human; Sex chromosomes; Oral; Craniofacial; Growth
Subjects:R Medicine > RK Dentistry
Departments, Research Centres and Related Units:Academic Faculties, Institutes and Research Centres > Faculty of Medicine > School of Dental Sciences
Related URLs:
ID Code:912
Deposited On:19 Oct 2009 12:27
Last Modified:19 Jul 2013 15:52

Repository Staff Only: item control page


Full text only
Peer reviewed only

Cross Archive Search
Top 50 authors
Top 50 items
[more statistics]

These pages are maintained by Library Staff @ University of Liverpool Library


All pages © The University of Liverpool, 2004 | Disclaimer | Accessibility | Staff | Students